Kriptografi Klasik

Kriptografi klasik adalah kriptografi yang digunakan pada masa-masa terdahulu. Di mana kriptografi digunakan untuk mengirim pesan-pesan rahasia penting yang tidak boleh bocor oleh pihak lain. Tercatat bahwa sekitar 4000 tahun yang lalu, bangsa mesir telah menggunakan hieroglyph tidak standar untuk menulis pesan. Sebenarnya, pada zaman Yunani kuno (400 SM) kriptografi sudah mulai dipelajari dan digunakan. Pada mulanya, kriptografi hanya populer dalam bidang militer, yaitu untuk menyandikan pesan rahasia panglima perang ke pasukan garis depan.


Algoritma Kriptografi

Algoritma adalah urutan langkah-langkah logis untuk menyelesaikan suatu masalah yang disusun secara sistematis [Munir, 2004]. Langkah-langkah tersebut harus logis, ini berarti nilai kebenarannya harus dapat ditentukan benar atau salah.
Algoritma kriptografi adalah bagian dari kriptografi yang berisi kumpulan langkah-langkah logis yang digunakan untuk melakukan enkripsi dan dekripsi. Biasanya langkah-langkah ini berupa sekumpulan fungsi matematik. Berdasarkan kuncinya, algoritma kriptografi dibedakan menjadi dua, yaitu algoritma simetris (kunci privat) dan algoritma asimetris (kunci publik).


Definisi Kriptografi

Kriptografi (cryptography) berasal dari Bahasa Yunani: “cryptós” artinya “secret” (rahasia), sedangkan “gráphein” artinya “writing” (tulisan). Jadi, kriptografi berarti “secret writing” (tulisan rahasia). Ada beberapa definisi kriptografi antara lain : Kriptografi adalah ilmu matematika untuk mengenkripsi dan mendekripsi data [PGP, 2004]; Kriptografi adalah ilmu yang mempelajari teknik-teknik matematika yang berhubungan dengan aspek keamanan informasi seperti kerahasiaan, integritas data, serta otentikasi [Menezes, 1996]; Kriptografi adalah ilmu dan seni untuk menjaga keamanan pesan (Cryptography is the art and science of keeping messages secure) [Schneier, 1996] dan dilakukan oleh kriptografer (cryptographer).


Simbol/Huruf (Font)/karakter pada HTML

by Galih Gasendra L.

Jika anda ingin memunculkan semua karakter pada HTML seperti karakter-karakter berikut:
ツ ♋ 웃 유 Σ ⊗ ♒ ☠ ☮ ☯ ♠ Ω ♤ ♣ ♧ ♥ ♡ ♦♢♔ ♕ ♚ ♛ ★ ☆ ✮ ✯ ☄ ☾ ☽ ☼ ☀ ☁ ☂ ☃ ♬ ✄ ✂ ✆ ✉ ✦ ✧ ∞ ♂ ♀ ☿ ❤ ❥ ❦ ❧ ™ ® © ✗ ✘ ⊗ ♒ ▢ ▲ △ ▼ ▽ ◆ ◇ ○ ◎ ● ◯ Δ ◕ ◔ ʊ ϟ ღ 回 ₪ ✓ ✔ ✕ ✖ termasuk smiley, karakter/huruf-huruf Arab, Cina, Vietnam, dsb.
Anda dapat menggunakan bahasa PHP sehingga tampilan yang akan anda dapatkan adalah:

Matematika Sulit?

Apakah benar matematika itu sulit?
Apakah sulit itu adalah matematika?

Paradigama yang kita dapatkan di lingkungan kita adalah bahwa matematika itu adalah sebagai suatu hal yang sulit, membosankan, memusingkan, dan sebagainya. Namun pada kenyataannya, sulit itu bukan karena matematika itu sendiri. Atau mungkin karena matematika itu sulit?

20 Best Graphic Design and Image Editing Softwares

Graphic design and image editing softwares are the most essential tools for a graphic designer. These softwares let them keep innovative and organized in their graphic designing. Adobe photoshop is one such software that makes the task of designers extremely easy and advanced. Beside Adobe Photoshop, there are numerous other graphic design and image editing softwares available in the market. Some softwares cost a bit and some are available with no cost. Among all, we have compiled 20 best graphic design and image editing softwares, that are showcased in this post.

20 Best Graphic Design and Image Editing Softwares:

1. FatPaint

Fatpaint is a free, online graphic design software, image editor and custom printed products webshop that assists you in painting & editing bitmap images/photos, writing rich text, making page layout and displaying graphics on products from Zazzle. Furthermore, images can directly be added to the project by searching on Wikimedia, Picasa, Flickr, Google, Yahoo and Bing. The completed project can be saved on Fatpaint’s server or your own computer.
Best Graphic Design Software-FatPaint

2. Gimp

It is a free software used for  photo retouching, image composition and image authoring. It can also be used as a simple paint program, an online batch processing system,  an image format converter and so on.
Best Graphic Design Software-Gimp

3. Adobe Photoshop

Adobe Photoshop is the most popular and widely used software for graphic design. The primary functions of Photoshop are photo editing, graphic designing and creating elements for any type of web project.
Best Graphic Design Software-Adobe Photoshop

4. Paint.NET

It is free image and photo editing software that has an spontaneous and advanced user interface.
Best Graphic Design Software-Paint.NET

5. MyPaint

It is a fast, easy and open-source graphics design software for digital painters. It allows you to work on your canvas with less distractions.
Best Graphic Design Software-MyPaint

6. Blender

This is a 3D animation software for graphic designers which is available free of cost.  This software enables graphic designers to create 3D applications.
Best Graphic Design Software-Blender

7. 5DFLY

This is a robust and brilliant Photo editing software.
Best Graphic Design Software-5DFLY

8. Pixelmator

It is a fast and powerful image editing software for the Mac operating system , which has spontaneous and stunning graphical user interface.
Best Graphic Design Software-Pixelmator

9. Inkscape

It is an open source vector graphics editor just like Adobe Illustrator.
Best Graphic Design Software-Inkscape

10. Skitch

It enables users to capture screen shots rapidly  and drag them into email for sharing.  You can even compose images with text and sketches, and share them with your friends.
Best Graphic Design Software-Skitch

11. Iconfinder

It provides high quality icons for web designers and developers in an effortless and efficient way.
Best Graphic Design Software-Iconfinder

12. Picnik

This is a free software that enables you to change colors of any image, do editing, add text to an image. Moreover, if you have creative ideas, you can make buttons, banners, and headers for your blog.
Best Graphic Design Software-Picnik

13. Artweaver

It enables you to paint creatively by utilizing various painting tools.
Best Graphic Design Software-Artweaver

14. GraphicConverter

It is an apple photo software for image editing and  graphics conversion.
Best Graphic Design Software-GraphicConverter

15. DrawPlus

It is a robust and versatile graphics studio perfectly developed for digital art, illustration, and painting.
Best Graphic Design Software-DrawPlus

16. ArtRage

It is an easy to use, stylish painting package for Windows, Mac OS X, and iPad.
Best Graphic Design Software-ArtRage

17. Paintshop

It is a powerful Photo-Editing Software for graphic designing.
Best Graphic Design Software-Paintshop

18. Photoscape

It is a fun and easy photo editing software that enables you to fix and enhance photos.
Best Graphic Design Software-Photoscape

19. Image Tuner

It is a free software for batch resizing, converting, watermarking and renaming your digital photos and images from and to JPEG, BMP, PNG, TIFF and GIF formats.
Best Graphic Design Software-Image Tuner

20. PhotoFiltre

It allows you to do simple or advanced adjustments to an image.
Best Graphic Design Software-PhotoFiltre

source: bestdesigntuts.com


Corel Draw Feature by Version 1 (1989) to X5 (2010)

CorelDraw Version support Windows
New Features
Release date Version Reading files Writing files
Jan 1989 1 1 1 2.1 First version
Mar 1989 1.01 1 1 2.1 Introduces backups on save, and draw rectangles from their centre
Apr 1989 1.02 1 1 2.1 IBM PIF file format support
Jul 1989 1.10 1 1 2.1 102 new fonts
Feb 1990 1.11 1 1 2.1 AutoCAD DXF import/export support
Sep 1991 2 1, 2 1, 2 3.0 Envelope tool (for distorting text or objects using a primary shape), Blend (for morphing shapes), Extrusion (for simulating perspective and volume in objects) and Perspective (to distort objects along X and Y axes). CorelDraw for Unix also became available.
15 May 1992 3 1, 2, 3 2, 3 3.0, 3.1 (preferred) Included Corel Photo-Paint (for bitmap editing), CorelSHOW (for creating on-screen presentations), CorelCHART (for graphic charts), Mosaic and CorelTRACE (for vectorizing bitmaps). The inclusion of this software was the precedent for the actual graphic suites. CorelDraw for Unix also became available.
20 May 1993 4 1, 2, 3, 4 3, 4 3.1 Photo-Paint (for bitmap editing), CorelSHOW (for creating on-screen presentations), CorelCHART (for graphic charts), CorelMOVE for animation, Mosaic and CorelTRACE (for vectorizing bitmaps). Multi-page capabilities, Powerlines, support for graphic tablets, Clone tool, elastic node editing, Envelope tool.
27 May 1994 5 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 3, 4, 5 3.1 This is the last version which was made for Windows 3.x. Corel Ventura was included in the suite (and then sold as a separate program); it was a desktop publishing application akin to PageMaker, Quark Express, or InDesign.
24 Aug 1995 6 3, 4, 5, 6 5, 6 95 This is the first version which was made exclusively for 32-bit Windows. New features were customizable interface, Polygon, Spiral, Knife and Eraser tools. Corel Memo, Corel Presents, Corel Motion 3D, Corel Depth, Corel Multimedia Manager, Corel Font Master and Corel DREAM (for 3D modelling) were included in the suite.
8 Oct 1996 7 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 5, 6, 7 95, NT 4 Context-sensitive Property bar, Print Preview with Zoom and Pan options, Scrapbook (for viewing a drag-and-dropping graphic objects), Publish to HTML option, Draft and Enhanced display options, Interactive Fill and Blend tools, Transparency tools, Natural Pen tool, Find & Replace wizard, Convert Vector to Bitmap option (inside Draw), Spell checker, Thesaurus and Grammar checker. The suite included Corel Scan and Corel Barista (a Java-based document exchange format).
27 Oct 1997 8 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 6, 7, 8 95, NT 4 Digger selection, Docker windows, Interactive Distortion, 3D, Envelope and tools, Realistic Dropshadow tool, interactive color mixing, color palette editor, guidelines as objects, custom-sized pages, duotone support. Corel Versions was included in the suite.
31 Aug 1999 9 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 95, 98, NT 4 Mesh fill tool (for complex color filling), Artistic Media tool, Publish to PDF features, embedded ICC color profiles, Multiple On-screen Color Palettes and Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications 6 support. The suite included Canto Cumulus LE, a piece of software for media management.
13 Nov 2000 10 10 10 98, Me, NT 4, 2000 CorelR.A.V.E. (for vector animation), Perfect Shapes, Web graphics tools (for creating interactive elements such as buttons), Page sorter, multilingual document support, navigator window. Open, save, import and export in SVG format.
  1 Aug 2002 11 11 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 98, Me, NT 4, 2000, XP Symbols library, image slicing (for web design), pressure-sensitive vector brushes, 3-point drawing tools.
10 Feb 2004 12 12 12 2000, XP Dynamic guides, Smart Drawing tools, Export to MS Office or Word option, Virtual Segment Delete tool, Unicode text support.
17 Jan 2006 X3 (13) X3 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, X3 2000, 2003, XP (32-bit, 64-bit), Vista (32-bit only) Double click Crop tool (the first vector software able to crop groups of vectors and bitmap images at the same time), Smart fill tool, Chamfer/Fillet/Scallop/Emboss tool, Image Adjustment Lab. Trace became integrated inside Draw under the name PowerTrace.
22 Jan 2008 X4 (14) 7 to X4 7 to X4 XP, Vista, 7 (32-bit, 64-bit) Whatthefont font identification service linked inside CorelDraw, ConceptShare, Table tool, independent page layers, live text formatting, support for RAW camera files.
23 Feb 2010 X5 (15) 7 to X5 7 to X5 XP, Vista, 7 (32-bit, 64-bit) Built-in content organizer (CorelConnect), CD, web graphics and animation tools, multi-core performance improvement, digital content (professional fonts, clip arts, and photos), object hinting, pixel view, enhanced Mesh tool with transparency options, added touch support, and new supported file formats. It has developed Transformation, which makes multiple copies of a single object. For the first time, OpenType versions of Helvetica, Frutiger, Futura and Garamond #3 font families (32 fonts total) from Linotype foundry are included instead of the Bitstream counterparts. All but Garamond are in OpenType Pro format.